# Implement SHA-256

### Python 2, 633 bytes

n=range
f=2**32
q=512
r=lambda v,b:v%f>>b|(v<<32-b)%f
t=int
g=lambda e:[t(x**e%1*f)for x in n(2,312)if 383**~-x%x==1]
h=g(.5)
k=g(1/3.)
m=map(t,input())
l=len(m)
m+=[1]+[0]*((447-l)%q)+map(t,'{:064b}'.format(l))
for i in n(l/q+1):
c=m[q*i:][:q];w=[t(c[j*32:][:32][1::3],2) for j in n(16)];x=h[:8]
for j in n(48):a,o=w[j+1],w[j+14];w+=[(w[j]+(r(a,7)^r(a,18)^(a>>3))+w[j+9]+(r(o,17)^r(o,19)^(o>>10)))%f]
for j in n(64):a,o=x[::4];d=x[7]+(r(o,6)^r(o,11)^r(o,25))+(o&x[5]^~o&x[6])+k[j]+w[j];e=(r(a,2)^r(a,13)^r(a,22))+(x[1]&a|x[2]&a|x[1]&x[2]);x=[d+e]+x[:7];x[4]+=d
h=[(H+W)%f for H,W in zip(h,x)]
print''.join('%08x'%H for H in h)


This solution is the result of a collaboration between myself, Leaky Nun, and Mars Ultor. As such, I've made it community wiki out of fairness. It takes input as a binary string wrapped in quotes (e.g. '011000010110001001100011' for abc) and outputs a hex string.

### Python 2, 519 bytes

Q=2**32
G=lambda e:[int(x**e%1*Q)for x in range(2,312)if 383**~-x%x<2]
H=G(.5)[:8]
r=lambda v,b:v>>b|v<<32-b
M=input()
l=len(M)
M+=bin(l|1<<(447-l)%512+64)[2:]
while M:j=0;a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h=H;exec"H+=int(M[:32],2),;M=M[32:];"*16+"x=H[-15];y=H[-2];H+=(H[-16]+H[-7]+(r(y,17)^r(y,19)^y>>10)+(r(x,7)^r(x,18)^x/8))%Q,;"*48+"u=(r(e,6)^r(e,11)^r(e,25))+(e&f^~e&g)+h+G(1/3.)[j]+H[j+8];X=a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h=(u+(r(a,2)^r(a,13)^r(a,22))+(a&b^a&c^b&c))%Q,a,b,c,(d+u)%Q,e,f,g;j+=1;"*64;H=tuple(a+b&Q-1for a,b in zip(H,X))
print"%08x"*8%H


I was working off the pseudocode, but some parts just ended up being the same as the golfed reference Mego posted since there's not much to golf (e.g. the constant tables, for which the only real golf was a <2 instead of ==1). Over 100 bytes down though, but I'm sure there's still more to be gotten.

Input/output is also string of bits to hex string.

## J, 458445443438435430 421 bytes

3 :0
B=.32#2
A=.B&#:
P=.+&#.
'H K'=.A<.32*&2(-<.)2 3%:/p:i.64
for_m._512]\(,(1{.~512|448-#),(,~B)#:#)y
do.w=.(,B#:(15&|.~:13&|.~:_10|.!.0])@(_2&{)P/@,(25&|.~:14&|.~:_3|.!.0])@(_15&{),_7 _16&{)^:48]_32]\m
'a b c d e f g h'=.H=.8{.H
for_t.i.64
do.u=.A]P/((e<g)~:e*f),h,(~:/26 21 7|."{e),t{&>K;w
v=.A(a*b)P(c*a~:b)P~:/30 19 10|."{a
h=.g
g=.f
f=.e
e=.A]d P u
d=.c
c=.b
b=.a
a=.A]u P v
end.
H=.A]H P a,b,c,d,e,f,g,:h
end.
,H
)


Try it online!

This is a monadic verb that takes a list of bits as input and outputs a list of bits. On TIO, conversion from string to list of bits for the input and list of bits to hexadecimal is implemented for convenience. To test other input, just modify the text in the input field.