Why does the Java API use int instead of short or byte?

(Almost) All operations on byte, short will promote them to int, for example, you cannot write:

short x = 1;
short y = 2;

short z = x + y; //error

Arithmetics are easier and straightforward when using int, no need to cast.

In terms of space, it makes a very little difference. byte and short would complicate things, I don't think this micro optimization worth it since we are talking about a fixed amount of variables.

byte is relevant and useful when you program for embedded devices or dealing with files/networks. Also these primitives are limited, what if the calculations might exceed their limits in the future? Try to think about an extension for Calendar class that might evolve bigger numbers.

Also note that in a 64-bit processors, locals will be saved in registers and won't use any resources, so using int, short and other primitives won't make any difference at all. Moreover, many Java implementations align variables* (and objects).

*byte and short occupy the same space as int if they are local variables, class variables or even instance variables. Why? Because in (most) computer systems, variables addresses are aligned, so for example if you use a single byte, you'll actually end up with two bytes - one for the variable itself and another for the padding.

On the other hand, in arrays, byte take 1 byte, short take 2 bytes and int take four bytes, because in arrays only the start and maybe the end of it has to be aligned. This will make a difference in case you want to use, for example, System.arraycopy(), then you'll really note a performance difference.

Because arithmetic operations are easier when using integers compared to shorts. Assume that the constants were indeed modeled by short values. Then you would have to use the API in this manner:

short month = Calendar.JUNE;
month = month + (short) 1; // is july

Notice the explicit casting. Short values are implicitly promoted to int values when they are used in arithmetic operations. (On the operand stack, shorts are even expressed as ints.) This would be quite cumbersome to use which is why int values are often preferred for constants.

Compared to that, the gain in storage efficiency is minimal because there only exists a fixed number of such constants. We are talking about 40 constants. Changing their storage from int to short would safe you 40 * 16 bit = 80 byte. See this answer for further reference.

Some of the reasons have already been pointed out. For example, the fact that "...(Almost) All operations on byte, short will promote these primitives to int". However, the obvious next question would be: WHY are these types promoted to int?

So to go one level deeper: The answer may simply be related to the Java Virtual Machine Instruction Set. As summarized in the Table in the Java Virtual Machine Specification, all integral arithmetic operations, like adding, dividing and others, are only available for the type int and the type long, and not for the smaller types.

(An aside: The smaller types (byte and short) are basically only intended for arrays. An array like new byte[1000] will take 1000 bytes, and an array like new int[1000] will take 4000 bytes)

Now, of course, one could say that "...the obvious next question would be: WHY are these instructions only offered for int (and long)?".

One reason is mentioned in the JVM Spec mentioned above:

If each typed instruction supported all of the Java Virtual Machine's run-time data types, there would be more instructions than could be represented in a byte

Additionally, the Java Virtual Machine can be considered as an abstraction of a real processor. And introducing dedicated Arithmetic Logic Unit for smaller types would not be worth the effort: It would need additional transistors, but it still could only execute one addition in one clock cycle. The dominant architecture when the JVM was designed was 32bits, just right for a 32bit int. (The operations that involve a 64bit long value are implemented as a special case).

(Note: The last paragraph is a bit oversimplified, considering possible vectorization etc., but should give the basic idea without diving too deep into processor design topics)

EDIT: A short addendum, focussing on the example from the question, but in an more general sense: One could also ask whether it would not be beneficial to store fields using the smaller types. For example, one might think that memory could be saved by storing Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK as a byte. But here, the Java Class File Format comes into play: All the Fields in a Class File occupy at least one "slot", which has the size of one int (32 bits). (The "wide" fields, double and long, occupy two slots). So explicitly declaring a field as short or byte would not save any memory either.

The design complexity of a virtual machine is a function of how many kinds of operations it can perform. It's easier to having four implementations of an instruction like "multiply"--one each for 32-bit integer, 64-bit integer, 32-bit floating-point, and 64-bit floating-point--than to have, in addition to the above, versions for the smaller numerical types as well. A more interesting design question is why there should be four types, rather than fewer (performing all integer computations with 64-bit integers and/or doing all floating-point computations with 64-bit floating-point values). The reason for using 32-bit integers is that Java was expected to run on many platforms where 32-bit types could be acted upon just as quickly as 16-bit or 8-bit types, but operations on 64-bit types would be noticeably slower. Even on platforms where 16-bit types would be faster to work with, the extra cost of working with 32-bit quantities would be offset by the simplicity afforded by only having 32-bit types.

As for performing floating-point computations on 32-bit values, the advantages are a bit less clear. There are some platforms where a computation like float a=b+c+d; could be performed most quickly by converting all operands to a higher-precision type, adding them, and then converting the result back to a 32-bit floating-point number for storage. There are other platforms where it would be more efficient to perform all computations using 32-bit floating-point values. The creators of Java decided that all platforms should be required to do things the same way, and that they should favor the hardware platforms for which 32-bit floating-point computations are faster than longer ones, even though this severely degraded PC both the speed and precision of floating-point math on a typical PC, as well as on many machines without floating-point units. Note, btw, that depending upon the values of b, c, and d, using higher-precision intermediate computations when computing expressions like the aforementioned float a=b+c+d; will sometimes yield results which are significantly more accurate than would be achieved of all intermediate operands were computed at float precision, but will sometimes yield a value which is a tiny bit less accurate. In any case, Sun decided everything should be done the same way, and they opted for using minimal-precision float values.

Note that the primary advantages of smaller data types become apparent when large numbers of them are stored together in an array; even if there were no advantage to having individual variables of types smaller than 64-bits, it's worthwhile to have arrays which can store smaller values more compactly; having a local variable be a byte rather than an long saves seven bytes; having an array of 1,000,000 numbers hold each number as a byte rather than a long waves 7,000,000 bytes. Since each array type only needs to support a few operations (most notably read one item, store one item, copy a range of items within an array, or copy a range of items from one array to another), the added complexity of having more array types is not as severe as the complexity of having more types of directly-usable discrete numerical values.