What is the name of the 8 white squares surrounding resizable views?

Terms for these may vary from platform to platform, but on the Mac I believe they're called the "handles" on the "selection box"

I would refine Spiff’s answer a bit and say they are the resize handles, since one typically uses them to resize the object of interest.

Per duplode's comment, this appears to be the nomenclature used by Microsoft – see, e.g., "Use resize and rotation handles" on MSDN.

I typically call them "control points".

Here are some web references that use similar terminology.

Apple's Motion 4 Manual

you can also use the onscreen control points to resize the rectangle

An article on resizing graphics in CS5

In the default scaling mode, the selection scales graphic elements from the control point opposite the one you’re dragging.

From Microsoft Office 2003 in 10 Simple Steps or Less By Michael Desmond

When you hover your mouse cursor over a cell or table edge, the boundary turns blue, indicating a layout area. Click this boundary and control points appear.... You can click and drag these points to resize....

I agree with the comment by Steve Rindsberg that mentioned that the preferred terminology might vary by application and will note that Microsoft's documentation on Powerpoint appears to use control point for Bezier curves and resize handle (as suggested by hBy2Py) for resizing.