Using wildcards for column headers in QGIS Field Calculator?

With the introduction of the Function Editor back in QGIS 2.8, it is possible to iterate through the field names and perform some sort of analysis:

from qgis.core import *
from qgis.gui import *

@qgsfunction(args='auto', group='Custom')
def fields(feature, parent):
    layer = qgis.utils.iface.activeLayer()
    field_names = [ for field in layer.fields()]
    for name in field_names:
        if "some_name" in name:
            # Do something

Sorry. Wildcards are for use in strings, and unfortunately the double quotes around a column name don't mean that it's a string. Column names are "identifiers", which I think are basically object names, but I'm no expert. That doesn't mean that there is no way to do what you're asking, but it won't be happening in field calculator.