Performing a 'far analysis' using ArcGIS for Desktop?

This code worked for me. I modified a near point distance tool I wrote last year. To find max distance, just change the dist_type parameter from min to max:

import arcpy, os, sys, traceback, math
from os import path as p
from datetime import datetime as d
arcpy.env.overwriteOutput = True

def Message(msg):
    print str(msg)

def findDistance(a,b):
    x = abs(a[0] - b[0])
    y = abs(a[1] - b[1])
    return math.sqrt((x*x) + (y*y))

def nearPoints(in_points, near_points, out_table, dist_type=min):
    """function to find the minimum or maximimum distance between points

        in_points -- source points for near analysis
        near_points -- points to find distance to (can be same as in_points)
        out_table -- output near table

        dist_type -- set to min or max to find the closest or farthest distnace
            between points.

    # fix args if coming from script tool
    if str(dist_type).lower() == 'max':
        dist_type = max
        dist_type = min

    startTime =
    # grab xy coords
    with arcpy.da.SearchCursor(in_points, ['OID@','SHAPE@XY']) as rows:
        point_dict = dict((r[0],r[1]) for r in rows)

    # grab xy coords near points
    with arcpy.da.SearchCursor(near_points, ['OID@','SHAPE@XY']) as rows:
        npoint_dict = dict((r[0],r[1]) for r in rows)

    # create dictionary to find nearest point
    same = in_points == near_points
    near_dict = {}
    for key in point_dict.keys():
        this_pt = point_dict[key]
        distList = {}
        for oid,coords in npoint_dict.iteritems():
            distList[oid] = findDistance(this_pt,coords)
        if same:
            closest = dist_type(filter(None, distList.values()))
            closest = dist_type(distList.values())
        near_id = [k for k,v in distList.items() if v==closest][0]
        near_dict[key] = [near_id,closest]
    del point_dict, distList

    # create output table
    path = os.path.dirname(out_table)
    name = os.path.basename(out_table)
    if arcpy.Exists(out_table):
    fields = ['OID@','NEAR_ID','NEAR_DIST']
    with arcpy.da.UpdateCursor(out_table,fields) as rows:
        for row in rows:
            if row[0] in near_dict:
                row[1] = near_dict[row[0]][0]
                row[2] = near_dict[row[0]][1]
    Message('Created: %s' %os.path.basename(out_table))
    Message('(Elapsed time: %s)' %(str( - startTime)[:-3]))
    return out_table

if __name__ == '__main__':

##    # stand alone
##    pts = r'C:\TEMP\carlton_cities3.shp'
##    out = r'C:\TEMP\carlton_max_dist.dbf'
##    nearPoints(pts, pts, out, max)

    # Get Args
    argv = tuple(arcpy.GetParameterAsText(i) for i in range(arcpy.GetArgumentCount()))

    # Run it

If you have access to an ArcInfo license, you could use the Point Distance tool, which:

Determines the distances from input point features to all points in the near features.... The tool creates a table with distances between two sets of points. if the default search radius is used, distances from all input points to all near points are calculated. The output table can be quite large. For example, if both input and near features have 1,000 points each, then the output table can contain one million records.

Run this with no search radius, then filter to find the pairs with the greatest distance.