Overriding some DNS entries in BIND for internal networks

Solution 1:

The best method is via the response policy zone in Bind 9.8.1 or newer. It allows you to override single records in arbitrary zones (and there's no need to create a whole subdomain for that, only the single record you want to change), it allows you to override CNAMEs, etc. Other solutions such as Unbound cannot override CNAMEs.


EDIT: Let's do this properly then. I will document what I've done based on the tutorial linked above.

My OS is Raspbian 4.4 for Raspberry Pi, but the technique should work without any changes on Debian and Ubuntu, or with minimal changes on other platforms.

Go to where your Bind config files are kept on your system - here it's in /etc/bind. Create in there a file called db.rpz with the following contents:

$TTL 60
@            IN    SOA  localhost. root.localhost.  (
                          2015112501   ; serial
                          1h           ; refresh
                          30m          ; retry
                          1w           ; expiry
                          30m)         ; minimum
                   IN     NS    localhost.

localhost       A

www.some-website.com    A

www.other-website.com   CNAME    fake-hostname.com.

What does it do?

  • it overrides the IP address for www.some-website.com with the fake address, effectively sending all traffic for that site to the loopback address
  • it sends traffic for www.other-website.com to another site called fake-hostname.com

Anything that could go in a Bind zone file you can use here.

To activate these changes there are a few more steps:

Edit named.conf.local and add this section:

zone "rpz" {
  type master;
  file "/etc/bind/db.rpz";

The tutorial linked above tells you to add more stuff to zone "rpz" { } but that's not necessary in simple setups - what I've shown here is the minimum to make it work on your local resolver.

Edit named.conf.options and somewhere in the options { } section add the response-policy option:

options {
  // bunch
  // of
  // stuff
  // please
  // ignore

  response-policy { zone "rpz"; };

Now restart Bind:

service bind9 restart

That's it. The nameserver should begin overriding those records now.

If you need to make changes, just edit db.rpz, then restart Bind again.

Bonus: if you want to log DNS queries to syslog, so you can keep an eye on the proceedings, edit named.conf.local and make sure there's a logging section that includes these statements:

logging {
    // stuff
    // already
    // there

    channel my_syslog {
        syslog daemon;
        severity info;
    category queries { my_syslog; };

Restart Bind again and that's it.

Test it on the machine running Bind:

dig @ www.other-website.com. any

If you run dig on a different machine just use @the-ip-address-of-Bind-server instead of @

I've used this technique with great success to override the CNAME for a website I was working on, sending it to a new AWS load balancer that I was just testing. A Raspberry Pi was used to run Bind, and the RPi was also configured to function as a WiFi router - so by connecting devices to the SSID running on the RPi I would get the DNS overrides I needed for testing.

Solution 2:

The Unbound recursive DNS server has the ability to override individual resource records.

Look at the local-zone and local-data configuration settings in the manual, e.g.:

local-zone: "example.com." transparent
local-data: "foo.example.com. IN A"

The transparent setting on the local-zone tells it to do normal recursive lookups for any names not supplied with local-data.

Solution 3:

You may want to look into "dnsmasq", which lets you do some pretty clever things with tweaking resolution.

Solution 4:

What you're looking for is split DNS, which is defined by Webopedia as:

In a split DNS infrastructure, you create two zones for the same domain, one to be used by the internal network, the other used by the external network. Split DNS directs internal hosts to an internal domain name server for name resolution and external hosts are directed to an external domain name server for name resolution.

Essentially, you will need to make a copy of your external zone file and prop it up on your internal DNS server, then change or add the records needed specifically for your internal network. This is a pretty common setup, though it can be a pain to keep the "external" records synchronized between the two DNS servers. If you create or change a record on the public server, it will also need to be created or changed on the private server as well.

This can be implemented regardless of what DNS server implementation you use. In most setups, you will have one DNS server that serves the external network, and a different one that serves the internal network. With BIND, as possibly other implementations, you can have both versions of the zone on the same server through a use of the "allow-query" statement within the zone section of the named.conf file.

Another possibility on BIND (and I've never tried this) would be to set your example.com domain on the internal DNS server with only the records you use internally. Then, set a "forward" statement with the "first" argument (in conjunction with "forwarders"). In theory, this would go ask the external DNS server (as set in "forwarders" for an answer, which wouldn't have your internal records and return a failure response. Then, the internal server would look at itself for an answer. Not sure if that would work, but it's a thought.

Solution 5:

Use dnsmasq makes it real easy. http://www.thekelleys.org.uk/dnsmasq/doc.html Acts as the dns server but gets answers from local dns server. Nice thing is you can override single domain records without messing with zone files