# Other than magnetism, can any of the four fundamental forces be *repulsive*?

Famously, magnets have North and South poles, and like repels like. You can think of these as positive and negative "magnetic charges". Similarly, electrical charges obey the like-repels-like rule (e.g. two electrons are both negatively charged and repel each other).

The strong and weak nuclear forces can be thought of as more complicated cousins of electromagnetism, with multiple charges that still come in positive and negative. (For example, you can think of quarks as having a positive charge called a color, antiquarks as having a negative charge called an anticolor, and gluons as having each, like the poles of a magnet.) The details are more complicated, but yes, like still repels like.

When we look at gravity, we find positive "charges" called masses that *attract* each other. Why is this case different? It turns out to be due to EM and nuclear forces having spin-1 carriers and gravity's hypothetical carriers being spin-2, but that's probably overkill for this question.

Could gravity repel? It would require opposite charges, i.e. positive and negative, and where would you get negative mass from? The cosmological constant $\Lambda$ that accelerates the expansion of the universe can be thought of as a negative contribution to the universe's density, resulting in a repulsive effect.

The strong nuclear force repels two particles when the distance between them is less than about 0.5fm. If this wasn't the case, then one implication of that would be that nuclei would implode in on themselves. After 0.5fm, it attracts, but at about 4fm it stops attracting.

The simplest example is electrostatic force: positive charges repel.

More complicated, is that the gravitational "force" can also be repulsive in the case of a fluid with negative pressure. This is counter-intuitive, because we would think positive pressure pushes things apart, and thus negative pressure pulls them together. But in relativity, pressure is a form of energy, and thus gravity. so negative pressure gives negative gravity, and thus pushes things apart.

Ah, but you might ask, what in the world has negative pressure? Amazingly enough, it seems the entire vacuum of the Universe has negative pressure. We call it the cosmological constant, or more generally, quintessence, and we have known for about 20 years now that it is making the universe expand faster and faster, due to repulsive gravity.