Multiple "virtual" monitors on one screen in Windows 10

Yes and no. What you ask specifically is not possible. I can give you something similar, which might be sufficient, though.

Virtual monitors is not what you will get, but it is called virtual desktops. Windows 10 does have support for virtual desktops by using a button called Task View.

This button is located in the bottom left of your taskbar, next to start when enabled. To enable, right-click the task bar, and select Task View.

Once the button is visible, click it to bring up the taskview control panel. From here, you can create new desktops, and drag windows to their desktop. Once they live in their new desktop, you can use the taskview button to quickly switch between these desktops, which is essentially what you ask.

I believe you can also switch using WIN+ALT+left and right arrow, but not sure.

The only drawback with taskview, in compared to other virtual desktop managers, is that taskview will not remember your desktops after you reboot. For the time being, you may want to hibernate your pc instead of shutting it down.

Taskview is not that old yet and as such, is not as feature rich as one may wishes.