Chemistry - Is the nomenclature "primary", "secondary", "tertiary", and "quaternary" carbon atoms limited to sp3 carbon atoms?

To best of my knowledge, the classification primary to quaternary is used for discussing reactivity of hydrocarbons, i.e. alkanes. There the number of substituents matters, as it governs carbocation stability, steric hindrance, etc...

In all other cases, the electronic structure of the molecule rules the reactivity. As you mentioned alkenes, alkynes or aromates, there it makes no sense to discuss such subtle effect as number of neighbouring carbons, when you have $\pi$-system at hand.

The IUPAC Gold Book entry for alkyl groups supports this distinction:

The groups $\ce{RCH2}$, $\ce{R2CH}\ (\ce{R} ≠ \ce{H})$, and $\ce{R3C}\ (\ce{R} ≠ \ce{H})$ are primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl groups, respectively.