# In 4 spatial dimensions, would motion under a central force law be confined to a plane?

In general, the angular momentum is defined as $\mathbf{L}=\mathbf{r}\wedge\mathbf{p}$. In our problem, switching to index notation, we have, in the CM frame, $$L_{\mu\nu}=r_\mu p_\nu-r_\nu p_\mu=\mu(r_\mu\dot{r}_\nu-r_\nu\dot{r}_\mu)$$ Now, since there is no external torque, angular momentum is constant. If we define a Cartesian coordinate system $(w,x,y,z)$ such that the initial position and velocity vectors are coplanar with the $wx$-plane associated with, then our angular momentum tensor would look like such: $$L_{\mu\nu}=\begin{pmatrix}0 & \mu(r_{w}(0)\dot{r}_x(0)-r_x(0)\dot{r}_w(0)) & 0 & 0\\ \mu(r_x(0)\dot{r}_w(0)-r_{w}(0)\dot{r}_x(0)) & 0 & 0& 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0& 0 & 0 & 0 \end{pmatrix}$$ because the $y$ and $z$ components of both vectors are zero. However, because angular momentum is conserved, each element of this tensor is conserved. Therefore, the vectors never leave this plane. This argument can be extended to any number of dimensions.

Tesseract's answer is correct. More conceptually, in general dimensions the angular momentum is what is known as a "two-form", which you can think of a plane with a magnitude and orientation of in-plane rotation. This works in any dimension, and in any dimension the conservation of this plane means that motion under a central force is confined to that plane.

In three spatial (Euclidean) dimensions only, there exists a natural duality mapping from such a two-form to an ordinary "arrow-type" vector (technically a pseudovector), given by the unique vector that is perpendicular to the plane, with an orientation given by the right-hand rule and a magnitude equal to the magnitude of the two-form. This mapping, known as the Hodge dual, only works in three spatial dimensions (although there is a generalization that works in arbitrary dimensions). We are implicitly using it when we think of the angular momentum as an "arrow-type" pseudovector in three spatial dimensions.

As answered elsewhere, yes, the motion is confined to a plane.

For me, analogy to cross products is less intuitive in higher dimensions. What makes it planar? *Force dictates the second derivative*. You always have a

**second**order differential equation. All solutions to "nice"

**second**order differential equations are defined by

**two**functions. Below is a kinda-rigorous proof in $n$ dimensions:

Suppose you have the functions $F(\vec r)$ and $\vec q(t)$ that you described:

$F(\vec r)$ is parallel to $\vec r$. That means $F(\vec r) = C(\vec r) \vec r$ for a scalar function $C(\vec r)$.

So $F(\vec q(t)) = C(\vec q(t))\vec q(t)$ where $C(\vec q(t))$ is really just a function of $t$.

So $C(t)\vec q(t) = \vec q ''(t)$. (From the momentum eq. Ignore $m$.)

Since $C(t)$ is a scalar, you have the same differential equation for all four dimensions. Also, the differential equation is second order and homogeneous and "nice". That means the solution will be defined by at most two functions, weighted by constants. That is, it will have the form $q_k(t) = A_kf_1(t) + B_kf_2(t)$ in each dimension $k$. The $A$'s and $B$'s may change across the dimensions, but $f_1$ and $f_2$ are scalar functions - the same in all dimensions.

Put those equations together and make vectors $\vec A$ and $\vec B$:

$\vec q(t) = f_1(t)\vec A + f_2(t)\vec B$

$\vec A$ and $\vec B$ define the plane, and QED!