Android - How to listen iTunes podcasts on Android
If you don't want to be shackled to iTunes for downloading/syncing the actual episodes, you can right-click the podcast in iTunes, and select Copy Podcast URL. It will copy the URL to the podcast feed to your clipboard.
Use this URL on your Android device to subscribe to the podcast there.
Google Play Music manager can synchronize with iTunes, including podcasts.
I've faced the same problem and I found this software:
Basically what it does is read you iTunes library and coping what you want to the device your want, it's just great and you can set the configs to you needs.
It has an android client and a PC client.
Hope you will find it useful.