Android - How do I dismiss just the next occurrence of a recurring alarm?

As far as I know, you can't, and I'm afraid there's a misunderstanding/mistake by Google.

I checked the help support in English (US), and for the same topic, it instead mentions,

Dismiss next alarm

If you have an alarm scheduled to go off within the next two hours, you can dismiss the next instance of your alarm. If your alarm is set to repeat, your alarm will still be turned on for future instances.

(Emphasis mine)

It only means that you can dismiss it if it goes off in 2 hours (like for other alarms), but for repeating alarm, Android will set the next alarm automatically.

I have posted this issue on Google Product Forum. Hopefully they will correct it.

Add a do not disturb rule for the duration. Not a complete solution, but that's what I do.