X~n means: The
nth ancestor of
X^ means: The parent of
X. This is equivalent to
X has more than one parent, one needs to distinguish between them when using the
^ notation. So
X^1 would be the first parent,
X^2 would be the second parent, and so on.
X^ is equivalent to
X^1 (and also equivalent to
In your example, starting from commit
9ec05ca, which is
HEAD^^^^, but nobody would use that).
e014d91, being the first parent of
f69811c, being the second parent of