Error whilst initializing SD card on Linux

Your SD card has died. This happens over time, anything like a drop or a lot of use can cause a SD card to die. I have had the same thing happen to me on a 16GB micro SD card used with my Raspberry Pi 2. It just stopped working one day.

The only way you could possibly get the data off the SD card at this point is to take it to a professional in the Data Recovery Field.

Do you use an SD adapter with a mechanical write lock switch?

Indeed, an old SD card of mine (no adapter needed) has the same problem on my Lenovo ThinkPad E540. The solution in my case is toggling the write lock switch a couple times. Since this is purely mechanical, I suspect a buggy/mangled card port -- mine looks and... "sounds" pretty flimsy!