Apple - Can I create an alias or a shortcut to a file in Spotlight?

Use Tags.

  1. Right click on the file you want
  2. Select "Tags"
  3. Type in the custom text for the tag (i.e. "Chemistry Textbook")

Now, in Spotlight, execute your search by prefacing it with tag:

tag: Chemistry Textbook

As an example, I assigned a sample text file (Chemistry.txt) the tag "Chemistry Textbook". Upon doing a Spotlight search, it found it immediately.

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You can find more information on how to fully use Tags from the Apple Support Document: OS X: Tags help you organize your files