Can data be transferred using the strong force?

Both the EM force and gravity are long range forces. The mediator is massless.

Now the gluon is massless too. So far so good. But gluons and quarks live in confinement. That is why the strong force is considered short range. Confinement is a tricky beast, you cannot use gluons to propagate through vacuum vast (or any) distance to transfer information.

The strong force inherently has such a high strength that hadrons bound by the strong force can produce new massive particles. Thus, if hadrons are struck by high-energy particles, they give rise to new hadrons instead of emitting freely moving radiation (gluons). This property of the strong force is called color confinement, and it prevents the free "emission" of the strong force: instead, in practice, jets of massive particles are produced.

If you are thinking about the residual strong force (nuclear force), then it is short range too, the mediator(s) are massive, like the pion, rho, omega.