Can address details be "googled" from the whois information, without knowing the domain name?

Yes. There are numerous web sites which present 'whois' information, and they are indexed by Google. For example, this search:

"Chen, William" whois

Leads to results like this: WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info - DomainTools

Which contain the full WHOIS record as well as other information.

Of course, most registrars offer "private registration" services (for a fee, of course) where the details they release are anonymized - instead of your email, they generate a random email address and forward all mail for that address to you, and your name is redacted. Here's an example of a domain that's protected in this manner: WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info - DomainTools

Registry Registrant ID: 
Registrant Organization: WHOISGUARD, INC.
Registrant Street: P.O. BOX 0823-03411
Registrant City: PANAMA
Registrant State/Province: PANAMA
Registrant Postal Code: 00000
Registrant Country: PA
Registrant Phone: +507.8365503
Registrant Phone Ext: 
Registrant Fax: +51.17057182
Registrant Fax Ext:
Registrant Email: [email protected]

(If you are reading this after February, 2017, there's no guarantee the link will continue to reflect this protection ).