Basemaps provided by Esri
Both clients - QGIS and ArcGIS Desktop/Pro - are rendering the same information - tiles of imagery, basemaps, etc. So really just images at the exact same resolution, so it has nothing to do with the software.
As to the source of that imagery, here is a good post here about adding the various services from ESRI, Google, Bing, and OSM to your QGIS sources:
We use a multitude of those services but none as a source of truth necessarily, and they all render the same as they used to in ArcMap.
I complement the anwer with this aclaration:
Esri satellite base mapa (Imagery) will render the same information (tiles, resolution...) in any user interface used, could be a desktop software or a web map, also Bing maps and Google Satellite.
What it changes is the quality between sources, if you are working with a delimited area, one of the map services that we are talking about could have a better resolution on that particular area.
For example, Esri Imagery could have clouds in a particular area and zoom that you want to work, but other source doesn't have it.