I know this is an old question but the answers don't really address the primary issue that was presented in the question which is a 301 redirect for SEO purposes (and the answer today may very well be different than it was when the question was originally asked and answered).
The answer that no, you can't 301 redirect from the client is technically correct, however (and more importantly) you don't necessarily need to. While a true 301 would be preferred, in cases like this one where it's not possible (or transitioning away from hashbang URLs back to traditional URLs for example), the question is really whether or not there's a viable alternative that accomplishes the goal.
Result: The redirects were quickly followed by Google. From an indexing standpoint, they were interpreted as 301s — the end-state URLs replaced the redirected URLs in Google’s index.
In short No.
301 is a server response code. You would not be able to create a 301 redirect from jQuery.
You'll have to do the 301 from PHP.